What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Lithium Batteries And Lead-acid Batteries For Electric Vehicles?
Lead acid battery
Among them, lead-acid batteries are the largest number. Lead-acid batteries have the lowest price and are most commonly used. China is the largest producer of lead-acid batteries in the world. It has less pollution and good recyclability. The disadvantage is that the volume is small. That is to say, under the same capacity, the weight and volume of the battery are large. At present, lead-acid batteries are basically developed by floating charge type batteries. Floating charge batteries are not suitable for fast charging and high current discharge. Although technicians have spent a lot of effort to make effective improvements, they can be put into use, but their life is still very unsatisfactory.
Colloidal batteries belong to the development of lead-acid batteries classification, the simplest way is to add a gelling agent in sulfuric acid, so that sulfuric acid electrolyte into gel. The electrohydraulic colloidal battery is usually referred to as a colloidal battery. Broadly speaking, the difference between colloidal battery and conventional lead-acid battery is not only that the electrobath is changed to gel.
For example, non condensing solid water colloids, from the electrochemical classification structure and characteristics of the same colloidal battery. If polymer material is attached to the grid, commonly known as ceramic grid, it can also be regarded as the application characteristics of colloid battery. Recently, a targeted coupling agent has been added to the plate formulation in laboratories, which greatly improves the utilization ratio of the plate active material. According to the private data, the specific energy level of the plate active material can reach 70 wh/kg by weight. These are the application examples of the colloidal battery in the current industrial practice and to be industrialized.
The difference between colloidal cells and conventional lead-acid batteries, from the initial understanding of electrolyte gelation, further developed to electrochemical characteristics of electrolyte infrastructure, and the application of grid and active materials. Its most important characteristics are as follows: with a small industrial cost, along the 150-year-old lead-acid battery industrial road to produce a better battery, its discharge curve is straight, inflection point is high, specific energy, especially the specific power than conventional lead-acid batteries more than 20%, life is generally twice longer than conventional lead-acid batteries, high temperature and Low temperature characteristics are much better.
Lithium ion battery
Lithium-ion batteries have better specific capacities than nickel-hydrogen batteries. For lead-acid batteries of the same capacity, lithium-ion batteries weigh as much as a laptop computer, so that the old and the weak can use them. Its life expectancy can also be better than that of Ni MH batteries. The current cell phone battery basically uses this kind of battery. The internal resistance of lithium batteries is relatively large, in the use of electric bicycles will appear when the battery will be fully discharged when the car feels insufficient power. The main problem of lithium-ion batteries is that the battery will explode in the overcharge and overdischarge state. Cell phone batteries are all single batteries, and then through good protection circuit to cooperate with the use, basically eliminating the problem of battery explosion. In the use of electric bicycle, it is necessary to use series battery pack, and the protection circuit of series battery pack is far more complex than the protection circuit of single battery, and its material cost is greatly increased. At present, a good lithium battery protection circuit costs close to the price of the battery itself. However, the explosive lethality of polymer lithium-ion batteries is lower than that of lithium-ion batteries, but there is also the possibility of explosion and combustion. This is also the same as lithium-ion batteries need to solve the problem.
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